Plastic Types and the Global Plastic Hate

Plastic became popular after World War II in the 1950s. Only in the 1980s, after much concern, the plastic industry introduced recycling. In order to make it easier to identify plastic types they created the resin code system. The hate for plastics has been growing since plastics started washing up on beaches.

Plastic Types

7 plastic types, their use, recyclability and speciality
Plastic resin codes, their use, recyclability and speciality

1. PET – Polyethylene Terephthalate

PET bottles with resin code 1
PET bottles

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is often used in making polyester and drink bottles. Since it is economical to recycle, most kerbside recycling collects PET. Once recycled, manufacturers can produce recycled PET bottles and polyester, among many other products.

2. HDPE – High-Density Polyethylene

HDPE trigger spray bottle with resin code 2
HDPE Trigger Spray Bottle

Pipes and thicker bottles for milk and cleaning liquids use High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE). Like PET, HDPE also has very high recycling rates, and recycled material can turn into new bottles and furniture.

3. PVC – Polyvinyl Chloride

PVC pipe with resin code 3
PVC Pipe

Used in pipes, window frames and disposable gloves, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is one of the most challenging plastic types to recycle. This is mainly because of the additives like chlorine, cadmium and lead. So PVC has to be split from other plastics before recycling. Manufacturing plants can turn recycled PVC into flooring, cables and speed bumps.

4. LDPE – Low Density Polyethylene

Colgate toothpaste tube with resin code 4 for LDPE
Colgate toothpaste tube

Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) is a flexible plastic that you can find in toothpaste tubes, bread bags and frozen food bags. LDPE is difficult to recycle because toothpaste tubes contain aluminium, and plastic bags can clog up in the recycling sorting machines. Supermarkets and big retailers collect plastic bags for recycling. Although toothpaste tubes are generally not recyclable, Terracycle offers recycling for oral care products and packaging. Recycled LDPE can make rubbish bins, furniture and bubble wrap.

5. PP – Polypropylene

Polypropylene container for olives resin code 5
Polypropylene container for olives

In many aspects, Polypropylene (PP) is similar to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and has similar applications. You can effortlessly recycle some of the PP plastics, but there are also PP plastics that you cannot recycle easily. Kerbside recycling for food containers is prevalent, but we can’t say the same for straws, tape and disposable cutlery. When collected, polypropylene can be recycled into brooms, brushes and plastic trays.

6. PS – Polystyrene

Polystyrene cups and polypropylene straws. Resin code 6
Polystyrene (PS) cups with polypropylene (PP) straws

Polystyrene (PS) is another of the hard-to-recycle plastics. Kerbside recycling rarely accepts PS because it’s not economical to recycle, and it causes problems at sorting centres. However, when filled with air, polystyrene becomes expanded polystyrene (EPS), which you can find as takeaway packaging and insulation. Once recycled down to tiny beads, expanded polystyrene can be made into new EPS products.

7. Other – Other plastic types

Polylactic Acid (PLA) cups by vegware with resin code 7 that indicates other plastic types
Polylactic Acid (PLA) cups by vegware

All the other plastics use the resin code 7. Generally, recycling of these plastics is not common but compostable bioplastics are also under the resin code 7. In addition, plastics such as acrylic, nylon, polycarbonate and polylactic acid (PLA) are under this resin code.

Why all the plastic hate?

  • Some plastics are not economical to recycle because they are difficult to sort
  • Plastic recycling process uses a lot of resources
  • Recycled plastics are usually more expensive than virgin plastic
  • Most plastics are recycled for up to 3 times before being discarded since recycled plastic is usually a worse product (downcycling)
  • Plastic factories use unsustainable crude oil to produce virgin plastic
  • Countries with higher minimum wage tend to send plastic to countries with less strict environmental regulations. These plastics can end up in landfill and oceans
  • If not discarded properly, plastics stay in the nature for 100s of years

What can we do?

  • Avoid plastic and prefer reusable alternatives when available
  • People, countries and companies should be more responsible of their own waste
  • When possible choose recycled plastic to increase the demand for recycled plastic

Final words about plastic

No doubt plastic has a lot of applications. Because it’s a lightweight material, transporting plastic produces less emissions. That said, the waste problems plastic causes outweighs all the transport benefits. Additionally, since it is a product of crude oil, it is not very sustainable to produce either.

Do you think we’ll continue using plastic 50 years from now? Are there any industries that won’t be able to move away from plastic?


See also

Sustainable products

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